Savarkar’s contribution to the shuddhi movement

Posted in Uncategorized on 26/02/2012 by satyapravah

From: Team To: aryaputra_1… Sent: Saturday, February 25, 2012 3:11 PM

Subject: Savarkar’s contribution to the shuddhi movement

The atmarpan divas of Swatantryaveer Vinayak Damodar Savarkar (28 May 1883-26 February 1966) falls on 26 February. It was on this day that Savarkar left his mortal coil in the highest tradition of Yoga by giving up food and water. Having done all his earthly duties, he embraced death in a spirit of sublime self-contentment. It is fitting to recall Savarkar’s manifold and inspiring contribution to nation-building. A cause that was very close to Savarkar’s heart was that of shuddhi. The word shuddhi means purity or purification. The concept is central to traditional Hindu thought and practice. The Hindu dharmasastras lay great stress on purity with regards to behaviour. A person was deemed to be an outcaste if he violated the rules and norms of behaviour as laid down in the dharmasastras. Such a fallen person could be taken back into his caste and hence into the Hindu fold if he performed suitable penance. In this broad sense, the term shuddhi can be found in various juridicial texts and commentaries. During the last two decades of the nineteenth century, the term came to acquire a more particular meaning, namely the incorporation into Hindu Dharma of non-Hindu persons or groups by means of ceremonial action. The importance of the shuddhi movement in Hindu consolidation, nay in the very survival of India as a Hindu nation cannot be over-emphasized. Shuddhi in its particular sense has a hoary tradition with solid scriptural basis. Maharishi Deval, Swami Ramananda, Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, Harihar II, Chhatrapati Shivaji, Chhatrapati Sambhaji, the Peshwas, Maharaja Ranbir Singh of Kashmir, Swami Dayananda, Swami Shraddhananda, Mahatma Hansraj, Vinayak Maharaj Masurkar are some of the better known proponents of the shuddhi movement. The contribution of Savarkar to the shuddhi movement is that of a philosopher, worker, leader and leader of leaders. Savarkar stated a profound truth in his maxim “Change of religion is tantamount to change of nationality”. While Savarkar was not against voluntary acceptance of any religion after due thought, he was certainly against unethical methods employed by predatory religions to increase their flock. Savarkar lamented that Hindu rulers did not realize the grave consequences of mass conversions by Islamic rulers and failed to carry out shuddhi even when they had the opportunity and strength to do so. Along with his elder brother Babarao, Savarkar carried out a unique shuddhi movement in the hell-hole of the Andamans. Savarkar has written extensively on his shuddhi campaign in his My Transportation for Life. The Pathan warders would coerce or lure susceptible Hindu prisoners to convert to Islam. The Savarkar brothers carried out this shuddhi campaign in the face of violent assaults and an attempt on their life. In the absence of a formal shuddhi ceremony, Savarkar would ask the reclaimed prisoners to eat the tulsi leaf and chant from the Ramcharitmanas or the Gita. Savarkar’s shuddhi campaign inside the four walls of the Cellular Jail had a salutary effect on the free Hindu residents of the Andamans. They started getting themselves enumerated as Hindus in the census. During his internment in Ratnagiri, Savarkar continued his shuddhi campaign. Through speeches and writings, he mobilized public opinion in favour of shuddhi. In memory of Swami Shraddhanand who was martyred (27 December 1926) in the cause of shuddhi, Savarkar started the Shraddhanand weekly. He personally brought back several Christian and Muslims into the Hindu fold. The reversion of the Dhakras family (25 May 1926) who had converted to Christianity 15 years earlier was performed with much enthusiasm by Savarkar. In 1928, he made efforts to get their daughter married and performed her kanyadan. He traveled from Ratnagiri to Kharepatan to attend the thread ceremony of their two sons. It was during Savarkar’s stay in Ratnagiri that he met Vinayak Maharaj Masurkar of the Ramdasi tradition. Masurkar had started the Brahmacharyashram at Masur in Satara district (hence popularly known as Masurashram). It was Savarkar who told Masurkar Maharaj to bring back to the Hindu fold the hundreds of Rambhakts who had crossed over to alien religions. As a result, the Masurashram embarked on a shuddhi campaign in Portuguese-ruled Goa and brought back to the Hindu fold 7815 Gavdas who had been converted to Christianity. Coincidentally, it was on 26 February 1928 that the first batch of 1150 converted Gavdas underwent shuddhi in Tiswadi, Goa. Savarkar collected funds in Ratnagiri to assist Masurkar Maharaj in his endeavour. Savarkar was one of the very few individuals who was privy to Masurkar’s plans to carry out shuddhi of the Gavdas. As leader of the Hindu Mahasabha, Savarkar relentlessly championed the cause of shuddhi, saying that shuddhi and sangathan went hand in hand. On 21 August 1955, 40 fishermen who had been converted to Christianity were brought back to Hindu Dharma by Shankaracharya Yogeshwaranandji at Dadar, Mumbai. So overjoyed was Savarkar, that he exclaimed, “May I be reborn to carry out shuddhi work, such is its importance!” In his will, Savarkar had instructed that a sum of money be given six monthly to organizations engaged in shuddhi work. On this, the atmarpan divas of Savarkar, let us dedicate ourselves to the holy cause of shuddhi! Thanks, Team


secrecy, thy name sonia gandhi: now its issue of hiding income details, but why?

Posted in Uncategorized on 26/02/2012 by satyapravah

SECRECY, thy name SONIA GANDHI: Now its issue of hiding Income details, but why?

Source: News Bharati Date: 2/24/2012 12:03:02 PM

New Delhi, February 24:,-thy-name-SONIA-GANDHI–Now-its-issue-of-hiding-Income-details,-but-why-.aspx?NB=&lang=1&m1=&m2=&p1=&p2=&p3=&p4=&NewsMode=int

A question of denial of information about Sonia Gandhi and Gandhi family has come up. This history is being repeated as the Nation is asking a question that what does Sonia Gandhi have in her income tax returns that she doesn’t reveal. This question arises when Ms Gandhi flippantly showed a dust bin to a Right to Information application. Isn’t this a betrayal of Nation? Given are some representative reactions about the secrecy that has maintained by not only Congress Party but also the otherwise hyper and over-smart media of India. The Rajdeeps, the Burkha’s The Thapars, the Roys, the Arnavs and who not, all had kept a fatal silence on the issue of Cong chief Sonia Gandhi’s surgery abroad which had triggered many unanswered questions in the minds of entire nation and also in the minds of much suppressed Congress workers who are crouching under the dynastic rule of the Gandhi Family. Secrecy, thy name Sonia Gandhi. Now its issue of hiding Income details, but why? Secrecy continues to shroud Sonia’s illness (, 8 Aug 2011) Dynastic secrecy protected by India’s tame media (, 3 Oct 2011) Sonia goes under scalpel in US as secrecy surrounds her ailment (, 4 Aug 2011) The Hindu Article Questions Secrecy about Sonia Gandhi’s Health (IndiaTV, 22 Sept 2011) Dynasty wrapped in needless secrecy (The Pioneer, 7 Sept 2011) Sonia Gandhi’s health can’t be a state secret, it’s not about privacy (Asian Window, 5 Aug 2011) India’s media accused of omertà over Sonia Gandhi’s health (Guardian, UK, 22 Sept 2011) The omertà on Sonia Gandhi’s illness (The Hindu, 22 Sept 2011) This issue has again jumped up when, V Gopalakrishnan, a Chennai-based RTI activist, filed an RTI application with the Income Tax Department seeking details of Sonia Gandhi’s tax returns from 2000-01 to 2010-11. The Assistant Commissioner of Income Tax, New Delhi, who is also the chief public information officer (CPIO) wrote to Sonia Gandhi in January to seek her response to the request for release of information pertaining to her tax records. Sonia Gandhi declined permission for the release of the information, saying that disclosure of such private information to a third party, even if ostensibly made under the guise of transparency in public life, amounted to unwarranted invasion in the privacy of the individual. She took support of Section 138 of the Income Tax Act, 1961 that the information that an assessee submits to the Income Tax department was confidential and private in nature and could not be disclosed. The report notes that Sonia Gandhi also cited “security risk” as a consideration behind her reluctance to disclose the information – and added that there was “no public interest” involved in disclosing such information. Importantly, on an earlier occasion, a similar application had been rejected even without seeking Sonia Gandhi’s response. The Times of India, which is following this issue, has reported that that this was the second time that the CPIO had rejected such a petition from Gopalakrishnan for information on Sonia Gandhi’s income tax returns. After Gopalakrishnan went in appeal, the appellate authority said that by not seeking out a response from Sonia Gandhi, the CPIO had ignored the possibility that she might be willing to disclose her personal income-tax information. There comes the question, when even the Prime Minister discloses his assets every year, why Sonia Gandhi, an MP is reluctant to disclose her income tax information. This clearly demonstrates Sonia Gandhi’s Italian bloodline and her Papal beliefs which inspire her to keep secrecy about herself and her acts. In normal circumstances and in case of any politician, such details come under the realm of confidential information. But in a democracy the transparency of government is at the stake. In her article ‘The omertà on Sonia Gandhi’s illnesses’ published in The Hindu, Nirupama Subramaniam states, “It is not surprising that the Congress should be secretive about its leader’s health. What is surprising though is the news media’s submission to the secrecy on an issue that is of public concern.” She further comments, “…the media are clearly not in the mood to extend their kid-glove treatment of Ms Gandhi’s illness to some other politicians: it has been open season with BJP president Nitin Gadkari’s health problems arising from his weight. Clearly, it’s different strokes for different folks.” Swapan Dasgupta has commented that to some extent, concern over Sonia’s health can never remain a matter concerning the Gandhi family alone. The personal well-being of someone who is the acknowledged ‘leader’ of the Government—one who rules but does not rule—is a matter of public concern in all democracies. Swapan Dasgupta mentions in his article ‘Dynasty wrapped in needless secrecy’ published in The Pioneer expresses surprise saying that that when it comes to the ‘first family’, the media’s thirst for investigative journalism evaporates into handout journalism. He Says, “This is despite the fact that the country has been routinely misled on many occasions. When Sonia failed to be present in the opening sessions of Parliament, it was put out (by unnamed sources) that she was suffering from ‘viral fever’—an explanation that was believable in the context of the epidemic doing the rounds of Delhi. When, last year, she abruptly cancelled her meeting with the visiting British Prime Minister it was again put out that the family had to rush overseas because Sonia’s mother wasn’t keeping too well. Dasgupta says that no one ever claimed ownership of these doubtful explanations of the Gandhi family’s movements. For year after year, even as fawning courtiers celebrated Rahul Gandhi’s birthday, the birthday boy never happened to be in the country. However, for the media the Congress General Secretary’s travel itinerary was never the subject of any inquiry. Even the Right to Information Act has failed to yield any information on the subjects—presumably because they have ‘security’ implications. In 2007, a stunning exposure on Sonia Gandhi’s secret billions in Swiss banks came, surprisingly, from Switzerland itself. In its issue of November 19, 1991, Schweizer Illustrierte, the most popular magazine of Switzerland, did an exposé of over a dozen politicians of the third world. The magazine included Rajiv Gandhi, who had stashed away their bribe monies in Swiss banks. Schweizer Illustrierte is not an ordinary magazine. It has a wide distribution of some 2,15,000 copies and has a readership of 9,17,000 — almost a sixth of Swiss adult population. Citing the then newly opened KGB records, the magazine had reported, “Sonia Gandhi the widow of the former Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi was controlling secret account with 2.5 billion Swiss Francs (equal to $2.2 billion) in her minor son’s name’. The $2.2 billion account must have existed from before June 1988 when Rahul Gandhi attained majority. The loot in today’s rupee value equals almost Rs 10,000 crore. Swiss banks invest and multiply the clients’ monies, not keep them buried. Had it been invested in safe long-term securities, the $.2.2 billion bribe would have multiplied to $9.41 billion (Rs 42,345 crore) by 2009. If it had been put in US stocks, it would have swelled to $12.97 billion (Rs 58,365 crore). If, as most likely, it were invested in long-term bonds and stocks as 50:50, it would have grown to $11.19 billion (Rs 50,355 crore). Similarly the archives of the Russian spy outfit KGB, is far more serious. It says that the Gandhi family has accepted political pay-offs from the KGB — a clear case of disloyalty besides bribe. In her book The State Within a State: The KGB and its Hold on Russia-Past, Present, and Future, Yevgenia Albats, an acclaimed investigative journalist, says: “A letter signed by Victor Chebrikov, who replaced Andropov as the KGB head in 1982 noted: ‘the USSR KGB maintains contact with the son of the Premier Minister Rajiv Gandhi (of India). R Gandhi reports confidentially that a substantial portion of the funds obtained through this channel are used to support the party of R Gandhi’.” (p.223). Albats has also disclosed that, in December 2005, KGB chief Victor Chebrikov had asked for authorisation from the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, “to make payments in US dollars to the family members of Rajiv Gandhi, namely Sonia Gandhi, Rahul Gandhi and Ms Paola Maino, mother of Sonia Gandhi.” And even before Albats’ book came out the Russian media had leaked out the details of the pay-offs. Based on the leaks, on July 4, 1992, The Hindu had reported, “the Russian Foreign Intelligence Service admits the possibility that the KGB could have been involved in arranging profitable Soviet contract for the company controlled by Rajiv Gandhi family”. All this shows that the ‘Secrecy saga’ about Sonia Maino-Gandhi is endless. The Gandhi family has been awarded an iron wall to keep their secrets intact which has a cloud of mystery around them by both Congress Party and Indian Media. This is definitely a betrayal of Aam Aadami, the common man of India is only a distant spectator who has no right even to ask about. The Nation should realise that it is not a mere question of secrecy of any one ‘person’, but a string of sincerity, transparency, loyalty and more importantly national Security is involved in this. Time to Think! (Sources for Reference: The, 3 Oct 2011,, 4 Aug 2011, IndiaTV, 22 Sept 2011, The Pioneer, 7 Sept 2011, Asian Window, 5 Aug 2011, Guardian, UK, 22 Sept 2011, The Hindu, 22 Sept 2011,, 24 Feb 12,, 7 Jan,, Schweizer Illustrierte 19 Nov 1991)

Why a Frenchman built a Bhavani & Shivaji museum

Posted in Uncategorized on 14/02/2012 by satyapravah

Why a Frenchman built a Bhavani & Shivaji museum Francois Gautier | Monday, February 13, 2012

The first phase of FACT’s ( Shivaji Maharaj Museum of Indian History has been inaugurated by Sri Sri Ravi Shankar, Mrs Ajit Pawar and Nitin Gadkari. The exquisite Bhavani Bharat temple is one of the only two temples in India dedicated to Mother India (the other is in Haridwar) which Sri Aurobindo and Lokmanya Tilak wanted to build in Maharashtra 100 years ago. The VIPs then inaugurated three exhibitions: a miniature painting exhibition on the life of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj; an exhibition on Hindu Tolerance Throughout the Ages; and another exhibition that proves scientifically that the famous Aryan invasion never actually happened. Why does a Frenchman build a Bhavani Bharti temple and museum? I am proud to say I owe a debt to India, because this country has granted me so much, spiritually, professionally and even sentimentally. I was a young boy of 19, living in Paris, the city of my birth, when I heard that a caravan of cars was driving from Paris to Pondicherry. I had never thought about India, and had no interest in spirituality, but something in me pushed me to go. It took us six weeks to cross 10 countries and after many adventures, we reached Delhi. Right from my first night here, I felt I had come home and that India was a land of vast knowledge, a truth that eludes most westerners, because some of the paradox of the still apparent poverty and filth that blinds them. I had this feeling of being home, of Mother India, in the most unlikely places, even in Srinagar. I covered Kashmir as a journalist for the largest French political daily during the worst period of unrest, from the late eighties till the Kargil War. There was only one hotel opened for journalists in those days, the Ahdoos on the banks of the river Jhelum. Curfew was on, but at night I would step out of and walk on the bund that stops the river Jhelum from overflowing into Srinagar. One could hear gunfire and sometimes even grenades in the distance, yet I could feel the presence of the millions of saints, yogis, avatars and simple people who have prayed and meditated for thousands of years in Kashmir. It seems today like an abstract experience, but on the spot, it was so strong and vivid and I felt that this was the very reason why India should keep Kashmir. The Bhavani Bharti temple is thus an expression of my gratitude. This museum is also a place of knowledge. People can learn something about the history of their country while viewing the nearly 20 exhibitions FACT has made, and come out from this place being a little more knowledgeable about the history of this great civilization that is India. It is a tragedy that the Indian education system today produces so many brilliant youth, who are just good for export, as they are not made to learn about their own history. It’s also very sad that most history books describe Shivaji Maharaj as a petty chieftain, or Sri Aurobindo as an extremist. Some may ask why Pune and dedicate it to Shivaji Maharaj? I came to Pune seven years ago, knowing about Shivaji Maharaj, having researched him for my books and being a long standing admirer. I asked my driver to take me to the main museum here, which is called Kelkar. I was surprised and shocked to find that there was not a single exhibit on Shivaji! That day, the idea of a Museum of Indian History, dedicated to Shivaji Maharaj started taking shape in my mind. Pune is also the ideal place, as Marathas have a stronger national fibre than in other states and I felt the museum will be better protected here. This is a difficult project. Whoever has never attempted to raise money for a museum should give it a try… I have met hundreds of potential donors, but when I say I want to build a Museum of true Indian History, it wipes off the smile of their faces and they say they have to consult their board, or that they only give to health and education! But is it not time that the History of India, which has been mostly written by the British, or by historians employed by the British, like Max Mueller, be exhibited as it happened? This is a Rs20 crore project and we need your support. Please pass along the message to your friends. FACT is a registered Trust and has US and Indian tax exemption, as well as FCRA. Bhavani Bharti temple & Shivaji Maharaj Complex, Shinde Road, off Marathwada Institute, Wadgaon, Pune 47. Open from 9am to 7pm. Entrance free. Aarti in temple morning and evening —

The author is the editor in chief of the Paris-based La Revue de l’Inde and the author of The Guru of Joy

Are you a carrot, an egg, or a coffee bean?

Posted in Uncategorized on 14/02/2012 by satyapravah

Are you a carrot, an egg, or a coffee bean? A young woman went to her mother and told her about her life and how things were so hard for her. She did not know how she was going to make it and wanted to give up. She was tired of fighting and struggling. It seemed that, as one problem was solved, a new one arose. Her mother took her to the kitchen. She filled three pots with water and placed each on a high fire. Soon the pots came to a boil. In the first, she placed carrots, in the second she placed eggs, and in the last she placed ground coffee beans. She let them sit and boil, without saying a word. In about twenty minutes, she turned off the burners. She fished the carrots out and placed them in a bowl. She pulled the eggs out and placed them in a bowl. Then she ladled the coffee out and placed it in a bowl. Turning to her daughter, she asked, “Tell me, what you see?” “Carrots, eggs, and coffee,” the young woman replied. The mother brought her closer and asked her to feel the carrots. She did and noted that they were soft. She then asked her to take an egg and break it. After pulling off the shell, she observed the hard-boiled egg. Finally, she asked her to sip the coffee. The daughter smiled as she tasted its rich aroma. The daughter then asked, “What does it mean, mother?” Her mother explained that each of these objects had faced the same adversity – boiling water – but each reacted differently. The carrot went in strong, hard and unrelenting. However, after being subjected to the boiling water, it softened and became weak. The egg had been fragile. Its thin outer shell had protected its liquid interior. But, after sitting through the boiling water, its inside became hardened! The ground coffee beans were unique, however. After they were in the boiling water, they had changed the water. “Which are you?” the mother asked her daughter. “When adversity knocks on your door, how do you respond? Are you a carrot, an egg, or a coffee bean?” Think of this: Which am I? Am I the carrot that seems strong but, with pain and adversity, do I wilt and become soft and lose my strength? Am I the egg that starts with a malleable heart, but changes with the heat? Did I have a fluid spirit but, after a death, a breakup, or a financial hardship, does my shell look the same, but on the inside am I bitter and tough with a stiff spirit and a hardened heart? Or am I like the coffee bean? The bean actually changes the hot water, the very circumstance that brings the pain. When the water gets hot, it releases the fragrance and flavor. If you are like the bean, when things are at their worst, you get better and change the situation around you. When the hours are the darkest and trials are their greatest, do you elevate to another level? How do you handle adversity? Are you a carrot, an egg, or a coffee bean? **

Actual Voice of Swami Vivekananda- World’s Parliament of Religions -11 sept 1893

Posted in Uncategorized on 14/09/2010 by satyapravah

*Listen to Actual Voice of Swami Vivekananda

Wonderful and amazing speech, with tremendous thought-out words made it so
precious – from Shree Swami Vivekananda, before our times and how true some
of the things he said.

Short and powerful.What a command of English Language he had 120 years

Listen to Actual Voice of Swami Vivekananda in his Famous speech at World
Conference in Chicago on 9/11/1893. Click on the link below.


Posted in Uncategorized on 02/01/2010 by satyapravah


India’s Nuclear Marvel…

Indian Nuclear Scientists have created a history on the remarkable days of 11th and 13th of the month of May in 1998 by conducting a series of five advanced Nuclear Tests at Pokhran, Rajasthan. In common man’s term these are described as Simultaneous Explosions, but in scientific language, they are Near Simultaneous Explosions. These explosions were not carried out at the same time, but at very minute interval. The first three N-tests were spaced at some hundredth fraction of a second. Let’s see what we have accomplished on the day and what were the devices & technology used for that.

The first of the three N-tests on the first day was like a big Atom Bomb, which can be carried under the wings of a Fighter Aircraft and can be targeted at the enemy destination. It may be labeled as the ‘Conventional Atom Bomb’. The second one was a very small and can be fitted on the tip of the Missile as Nuclear Warhead. If we call the first one as Hi-tech, the second one may be called ‘Super’ Hi-tech. The third explosion was of Thermo-nuclear type. Commonly it is nicknamed in media as Hydrogen Bomb, but actually the device from which this Hydrogen Bomb can be made is known as Thermo-nuclear device. We have tested it here. The real Hydrogen Bomb cannot be tested on the Earth except in the battlefield. It is an extremely destructive and dangerous weapon.

On the first day, just half an hour after the splendid explosions, the IAF helicopter was surveying the site. It was assessing the air and environment. It gave ‘Safe’ signal to the control room situated just five km. from the test-site about the overall safety. It informed that the atmosphere was calm, there was not any kind of environmental insult the people could move up to the test-site.

On receiving these signals, some of the senior officials and the scientists rushed to the site taking the necessary equipment. Geological and Ecological studies were carried out in detail. Test analysis was going on in the control room. The work was divided in the seventeen divisions. Each was given a target. The data and the other details gathered by each division were analyzed. The conclusion at the end of second hour was that there was not a trace of the nuclear insult by the Radio-active radiations emitted following N-explosions.

Returning from the test-site, people of different departments submitted the respective departmental reports to Dr Kalam, Dr Chidambaram and Dr Kakodkar. The results were wondrous and delightful. The twelve of the seventeen departments had achieved 90-92 % success. The remaining five departments were such that Dr Kalam had eulogized them on their accomplishments. These people had achieved 95-97 % success. It is truly marvelous.

On the whole two things were evident. The tests were successful and there was no insult at all to the environment. The message was conveyed to the Prime Minister of India, Shri Atal Behari Bajpaiji.

On the same day evening, Prime Minister addressed a Press Conference and acquainted the world with the remarkable event. PM came with the Tri-colour in his hand. He proclaimed in the balanced words, “Bharat is now a Nuclear Super Power. India is now a Nuclear Weapon State.” One meaning of the proclamation was that our nation has put forward an important step necessary for its defence requisites on the foundation of indigenous scientific and technological advances.

Although the immediate effects of the explosions were felt in and around Pokhran and in some 125 villages nearby in the form of tremors or shocks similar to earthquake waves, the political and diplomatic tremors and jerks were felt in each and every nook and corner of the world. The derogatory reactions in very stiff, venomous and non-diplomatic languages began pouring in. The questions asked in the foreign and some local media were like, “Are they crazy?” “Are they lunatics?”

In political field usually such antinational and abusive language is avoided. Instead of commending India and the scientists for their extraordinary achievement, there was a battery of insane, derogatory and malicious criticisms. They expressed the fear that it would accelerate the arms-race already going on in South Asia.

But the common man was delighted. Their reactions were authoritative as if one was the eyewitness to the event. After returning back to Pune at the end of May, I was looking into the newspapers and the magazines of 12-14th May and around. In one daily newspaper of 12th May, the caricature was very specific. Two vegetable vendors sitting on a roadside were talking to each other. One tells the other, “I am feeling energized since yesterday.” This reflects the sentiments of a common man. I feel this is the greatest reward for the daring feat displayed by us. On the net, the common man’s reactions have traversed through a variety of sensors and proved enormously eloquent. There were the numbers of opinion polls, which made it obvious that 92 % of our nationals have wholeheartedly and conscientiously welcomed the incident.

The reactions were not confined to India. The CNN channel had organized a series of opinion polls from 12th to 30th May on the subject. The queries were straight and simple. “Do you justify India’s N-explosions? Give reasons.” Though it was destined to last until 30th May, it was abruptly and prematurely concluded on 22nd May. Adil Sopariwala, a political analyst, was associated with the poll as a member of the poll analyzing team. He displayed an interesting analytical report of the poll till the date. He told that they had announced to continue the poll till 30th May, but were winding it up prematurely on 22nd May, because the magnificent and intuitive expressions received till the date were so enormously unilateral that it was impossible to receive the enough contradictory views.

Similar were the reactions of common man in the outside world. They were for greeting the Indian government’s decision. Especially those of the European common men were of felicitating India. The reactions of the non-resident Indians, persons of the Indian origin and the people of those European nations who consider India as their natural friend & ally, were stating that, India that was till 11 May 98, in the list of developing nations, has now put forward a strong and assertive step towards a league of developed nations. They could receive India’s help when needed. Such were the responses of most of the countries.

I am citing an example that elaborates that how encouraging were the common man’s reactions. While returning Mumbai, we landed at the airport late night. We decided to reach Anushaktinagar for night stay and go to Pune in the morning. We had some precious equipments to be delivered at BARC before proceeding to Anushaktinagar. We needed a taxi from airport to BARC then to Anushaktinagar. Usually the taxi fare from airport to BARC is 1.5 times the regular fare. I know the habits of Mumbai taxiwalas. We reached BARC around 2 am. We decided to take vehicle from BARC. The driver listened that. To our surprise he told us that there was no need to change the vehicle as he would take us there. But he kept a precondition. We were surprisingly listening to him. He told, “I won’t take single rupee from you as fare.” We were not known to him. He might have inferred the identity of the persons going to BARC and Anushaktinagar at the midnight in such a way. We refused. But what he told was to me and my colleagues the greatest reward of our exertions. He explained, “As you are doing such an exemplary work for our nation, can’t we do a little for you?” Such astonishing were the greetings from the mass.

Another type of reactions came from the nuclear technocrats. These are very much important for persons like us working in atomic energy field. We were lucky to have an unexpected opportunity to receive such precious views. At Pokhran, our food was arranged by a Sarpanch of nearby village. We were a group of few persons who stayed at Pokhran after 11th May, rest had returned to their respective places. So instead of having meal at worksite, we went to the village for dinner. On our request the Sarpanch arranged for TV. Coincidently around 11pm, there was a press conference followed by panel discussion on BBC. The panel was comprised of three renowned nuclear scientists, the French, a Dutch and a British. They were introduced to the viewers. The French scientist had taken part in more than 200 N- tests of nearly 400 tests carried out by France under the sea water & the ground. He was just like ‘Bhisma Pitamah’ of our field. Such a great authority was evaluating our tests. We were extremely eager to listen to his views. Fortunately the moderator began with him. He asked, “Is it not amazing that India has emerged as a strong contender in the nuclear field after a big gap of 24 years? He was true. After our first test in 1974, we remained dormant for a long period of 24 years. In the field of scientific research, only achievements & evidences are considered. One can spare 5 to 6 years maximum after the first test to do 2nd test in the name of preparations. The nuclear club member countries knowing what did the delay mean, were looking at us contemptuously. So in these circumstances it is not a simple matter to have advanced N- tests and all proving successful. That is why the world was amazed. The first sentence of the French scientist was very commending. He accepted, “it is not only amazing but it is stunning.” He exclaimed that he could not understand that even after not getting any opportunity for N-test in 24 years, how the people could continue working in India. If he would have been told to wait, he could have waited for merely 5 or 6 years only. He would have left the project and joined the nuclear project of some other country. It was extremely amazing for him that we had persons silently working for 24 years without even expecting for N-test of any type.

Obviously this is the fact. Although the people of present generation like me have impressed the world by successfully executing the N- tests, I must sincerely have to admit that the scientists and the researchers of the previous two generations were patiently working in the adverse circumstances. They erected a grand structure with the strong base. We just kept a ‘kalash’ on the top of that magnificent edifice. They worked incessantly in the toughest conditions, faced the difficulties bravely, accepted the financial limitations & other resource scarcity, always encouraged the newer generations and hoped that the future generations, if not they, might get the opportunity. They truly deserve all the credit.

The French added further that as he had taken part in nearly 200 N- tests, he knew the intricacies & risks of even single N- test. It is very difficult to conduct two tests simultaneously. But it was an absolute madness to take the risk of doing three advanced N- tests at a time. Explaining the dangers he added that if any one of the three N- tests went wrong, other two might have gone out of control. The first casualty would be the scientists observing from just five km distance from the test site. They had taken a big risk. Elaborating the possible reason, he told that there was no opportunity in last 24 years and the people were not sure to get another in the future. To transform the only chance in to the success they endangered their lives. He frankly admitted that of 200 tests he participated only six were of thermo-nuclear variety, and unfortunately all had failed miserably, in spite of all resources and equipments provided by their (French) government.

We have to keep in mind that who is confessing this. The well experienced person who had to his credit the splendour of 200 advanced N- tests was telling that they were unable to succeed in super hi-tech thermo-nuclear tests. So it is but natural for him to eulogize the team for the rare accomplishment after a dwarfing break of 24 years.

It is very interesting to know that what our previous nuclear generations had done. Just after India’s freedom the Nuclear Corporation was established in 1948. The Atomic establishment was started in 1951, which after the death of respected Dr Bhabha, was rechristened as BARC- Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. An experimental reactor came to us in 1955.

From the very beginning our people realized that if we wanted to advance in this field, extremely diligent persons must be brought in. People trained under the guidance of experienced and learned professors in the university would be needed. So the department of Nuclear Physics was started in the Banaras Hindu University (BHU) and the Allahabad University. If a student of a science faculty is told that the new course of Bachelor degree is started in University but there is no experimental laboratory, and yet not sure when it will, none will seek an admission in such a course. Such were the challenges faced by the brilliant students opting for the study.

We are fortunate that having studying the Nuclear Physics from the Allahabad University and later teaching there, Dr. Murali Manohar Joshi became a minister looking after the department of higher education in the central government. As we think, it becomes apparent that what an appropriate appointment it was, when a person associated with such an important subject from the very beginning was given the charge of nation’s higher education.

The biggest task was to motivate such students to work there even without experimental laboratories and to ask them to face the plenty of challenges in the field. The students came, the professors came. But what could they do without experimental laboratory? Had they been reading books only? But they didn’t bow down to the limitations. They gathered the minute details of researches going on in the outside world in the subject. They studied and were unceasingly considering that whether they could add newer aspects to the subject.

Result was that these western people who felt that our people would know nothing of it, we needed not be given any mean or material and within a year or two the game would be over, their responses started reversing. Due to all those efforts we got an experimental reactor in 1955. But how much vigilance was kept while giving this? Even by mistake we would receive the full fledged reactor and we could make atom bomb, then? Instead of that, give experimental reactor. What would happen by it? Even the electricity generation would not occur. Only the experiments in the laboratory would be feasible. But we accepted it gratefully and our unending success story begins from there.

We had only three reactors till 1974 (first N– test). One of those was able to generate electricity in the limited amount. There was one test site only. Such were the meager resources at our disposal. How much did our capabilities grow steadily upon time? We had advanced having 21 reactors, 8 heavy-water plants and a full fledged most advanced test range by 1990. To do all these was to swim against the stream. But all of us had a strong determination in our minds that we must have to surpass all the peaks of this N- field. It was like a reverse journey of going to Gangotri from Rishikesh, not with the stream!

The nature has created a big obstacle for us. Nuclear grade Uranium essential for all these tests was not available here. It is the wonder of destiny that the world-best uranium mines were unearthed in Karnataka in June after the N- tests were completed in May. It means that the God helps true human efforts. If we sit with folded hands he will also sit in the same way. Surely, thou shall help our efforts. God was testing our essence. We had no other way but to search for the alternative to uranium as no country was going to give it unconditionally. Then what to do? Like ‘Prayatnate Parmeshwar’, on searching for alternative, one option came to us. Of course, the whole process was very expensive and tedious. But there was no other way. What was the option?

There are plenty of Thorium deposits, a radioactive substance, is available in the coastal sands of Kerala, Tamilnadu & Ram-Setu. As it is from the beach sand, it is in plenty and free of cost. The process to convert the Thorium to nuclear grade Uranium is very expensive and complicated. So those having sufficient Uranium had neglected this process. Due to that the Thorium processing equipments were impossible to be acquired from the world market. Our situation was different. We could get the Uranium from nowhere. That is why we proceeded with step by step by carrying out requisite advances on researches out of available resources.

Even till the day, the West was thinking that the something was missing for India to conduct N–tests. India still was the nuclear incapable state. But the reality was different. We had enough resources in relation to the physical need. Only one thing was lacking and that was a will, a will power, a strong will. The moment we were blessed with the Will-Power, we conducted the N– explosions.

The next question asked to the French expert was very specific. He was asked that what would be the devastating capability of the bomb made of this thermo-nuclear device. The known examples of nuclear holocaust are Hiroshima and Nagasaki. A single bomb destroyed a city. The devastation was decisive for the world war outcome. A variety of cancer like diseases and congenital anomalies, which are not hereditary, still afflict newborn babies. Such was the terrible nature of that bomb. Both the bombs were of limited 12 kiloton capability. Our tests were of 55 kiloton capability (energy released was equal to 55000 tons TNT. What would be the heat generated due to this? I read a book named Nuclear drive. I got shivers reading the narration. While studying the effect of bomb in Hiroshima, a human fossil was found on the footsteps of a house, close to the site. It is impossible to get the fossil on the surface. Then how it became possible? It became apparent on studying that at 3200 ℃ heat generated by the N- explosion, granite got melted and a man got burnt to ashes to form a fossil. A small bomb can generate such an extremely devastating heat. Oxygen from the air is very rapidly pulled towards a center, resulting in to an enormous cyclone. The wind velocity in such an explosion is generally 2,700 to 3,200 m/sec. A small pebble of stone of 3 gm weight flying with such a high speed is enough to kill a man. The devastating energy of the atom bomb can be estimated from it while elaborating such known nuclear holocaust. He had told that if such 20 bombs, one bomb every year, till 20 years, were dropped continuously and the condition that results can be created by such one bomb of thermo-nuclear variety.

It becomes apparent from this narration that what would be the destructive capability of this one weapon only. Due to this, the country like China, having ICBM (Inter Continental Ballistic Missiles) and who had developed atom bomb quite ahead of us, but unable to make hydrogen bomb had tacitly avoided giving any specific reactions. Indeed China was dumbstruck. They didn’t know how to react. Who can opine against a nation that has astonished the world by such notable feat at a stretch.

On the contrary, now they have suspicions in their minds that this may be the tip of iceberg. It is not apparent that how much is beneath the water. So the people who were ridiculing India that it was like a closed fist, and would be exposed, now are unable to estimate that what is further in the fist, as India has closed the fist after opening for a while. And this thing is absolutely unbearable to all of them.

It is told that the history repeats. USA didn’t know about 1974 explosions. They were having an intelligence network that time also. USA inquired 24 hours after the test that whether there was something like earthquake in the Rajasthan desert. India politely told “ No, there is no earthquake. This was due to our N -test.” After that event, from 1976 onwards, to keep a close watch and to gather the details of such activities, USA has positioned one Geo-synchronous and 3 Geo-stationary satellites in the Indian sky. Still they could not even smell about any of the five N tests of 1998. That was very hard to digest for them. Explosion was not unnoticeable. That is why American senate asked the president that what CIA was doing, what was the use of big expenditure on CIA. The members ridiculed that whether their watchdog satellites were only show-pieces & asked the government to investigate the matter. A high level committee was formed under the chairmanship of a former CIA president. There were many arguments & criticisms, but they could investigate nothing. Later on I came across an article written by the chairperson of the committee. It is interesting what he is confessing. He accepted that their satellites could not keep a watch on Indian operation. But he regretted that in spite of having ground network or local contacts, they couldn’t convert even a single Indian to their disposal. USA couldn’t get even a single Jaichand & our people collectively conducted such a great & successful marvel. It could be possible only if the minute planning with the foresight was done by the people having the responsibility. Bold decisions were to be taken. PM took the decision to strictly ration the information even for the cabinet ministers on need basis only. How difficult was it for a government surviving on the support of multiple small fractions? It would had been fatal if someone had opposed it. All were taken in to confidence but the information was restricted only on need basis.

I received a letter from the director on 7th April. I was asked to get prepared & report to the airport in two hours. When I reached the airport, some of my colleagues were also present. We were curious, but no one knew anything. A man gave us a boarding pass and told to check the name. There was no mention of place to reach. We asked him but he also knew nothing. We boarded in the plane shown to us. On landing a police officer took us, with our equipments, to another aircraft without any talk. We landed on 3rd day at Jodhpur airport. Now we felt a little where we were going. Such was the veil of secrecy even for those directly linked with the operation.

I was associated with the project since 1990. My marriage took place around that time. But my wife could know about my involvement with the project only after 13th may-98, when I returned home after the second series of tests have been finished and the news of the successful tests became public. I had to face her anger. This is the amount of psychological pressure faced by the people working with the project.

The decision taken by the government was really bold. It was a litmus test for the political leadership. If anything went wrong or a mishap occurred, they would have to be answerable. Only the people who consider the nation the first and power is secondary can take such courageous decisions. A phrase is popular in the armed forces, “It is not the gun, but the hand on it that fights. And it is not the hand on the gun but the mind behind it that fights.” The success depends on the psychological preparedness and the mental involvement in the work.

It is true as reported in the media that all the preparations were made in just one month. We had only a month’s time to work on the test site. We met on 11th April. Dr Chidambaram told us the exciting news that we had got the approval of the central government to test our N- devices. We were very much joyous. But his successive statement froze our enthusiasm. He told, “We have a great challenge. We have only one month and we have to test not one but five devices. We were stunned. We knew that how much efforts were needed for a test in 1974. It was evident to us that how impossible was the task to prepare for five tests in just one month’s time.

Why only one month? It was 11th April. The time and site were of great geographic and climatic challenge to us. We knew the wind pattern. It blows from Pakistan, Baluchistan, then traverses north Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal and reaches Bay of Bengal. The wind is up to Pak-Afghan border till mid- May. If the N- tests are done after 15th May, and unfortunately any one goes wrong, the radioactive particles traversing with the wind may create havoc for the country. The tests had to be finished by 15th May.

How were the preparations? The shaft (well) of 200-300 meter depth underground (nearly 60 storey building’s height beneath the ground) is needed for the underground test. There was one old shaft of 1974 test that could be used for one test only. It was decided to have three wells. So, two new wells needed to be prepared. That was not an easy task. The soil was sandy and deep to it was the black stone. Moreover the watchdog satellites spying from sky must be avoided during the work. The digging of the wells only was not enough. It needed a lift to carry men and machines. The equipments and sensors were to be fitted at different levels. We know the difficulty in erecting a lift for 60 storey building. Here, it was needed to go sixty floors beneath the ground. That seemed an impossible task. But we have seen the determination, swiftness and courage of our armed forces in Kargil war. Just like war, at civil requirement also, armed forces’ role is commendable, particularly in such scientific ventures. The Bengal Engineering Troops picked up the challenge.

We had a strong motivating force in the form of our team leaders. Feeling the state of our mind following Dr Chidambaram’s announcement, Dr A.P.J. Kalam rose to break the ice. He grasped the word ‘challenge’ from Dr Chidambaram’s speech and told, “Friends, this is the challenge as well as an opportunity for us. We have to pick it up and convert the challenge in to the opportunity. Else we have no right to be recognized as the scientists.” That was a frank evocation as if reminding Veer Hanuman of the great capabilities. A number of small group meetings followed and the challenge was accepted. We requested Dr. Kalam to fix the date for the N– tests. He was not having a calendar and no one knew that Buddha Jayanti would be on 11th May 98. He just told, “Clock is sounding tick tick. It means thirty. Only 30 days. Calculate the date.” The work began calculating hours, minutes and seconds remaining.

There wasn’t even a single incident when even ten people of 250 working on the site gathered to have tea. The Food was supplied at the work site. A light stream of air would shower much sand to the food. On 11th April, the temperature was 46 degree C. At the end of April in morning 6 AM it was 46 degree C. Around 5th May, at 10 AM it became 48 degree C. On 2nd, 5th, 7th, 9th May, 5 PM it peaked up to 52 degree C. Not to think of AC or fan, even shade was not available while working. In such harsh environment, with youngsters like me, an old man of 68 year, Dr. Kalam was working unceasingly. If a vehicle was not available to move from one place to another he walked in the sand. The sand was so hot as if walking on a burning coal. In such scorching heat, shirt buttons could not be kept unfastened. A touch of a sand particle was enough to develop a bleb and cause tremendous burning. If the body was kept covered, there were dripping sweats. As an antidote, a rickshaw used to distribute ‘gud’ pieces and water from a leather bag (pakhal). There wasn’t any possibility of any more facility and also no expectation at all. Many of us suffered nausea, vomiting and giddiness due to the over work during the day and night in the harsh conditions. But none complained of the sickness. Because one would have to go back if fell ill, and there was no future possibility to get such an opportunity again in the life. So all of us were determined not to return home until the work is completed.

We had an inspiring example. Our team leaders were extremely prompting. A message came during breakfast on 2nd May. The chit went to Dr. Kalam. He read and gave it to Dr. Kakodkar. It was regarding death of Dr Kakodkar’s father in Mumbai. He should return home living the work. Dr Kakodkar went to a lonely place. Dr. Kalam went to him and told him that he should go home. His family needed him. The arrangements were made and Dr. Kakodkar went Mumbai. We thought that Dr. Kakodkar is out of project. But to our surprise he was with us in the next day’s morning meeting. There was no sign of sorrow on his face. The most of our colleagues, who heard late about his going to Mumbai, thought that he might have gone for some BARC task. Most of the people present there came to know about his father’s death only after 15th July, long time after the tests, through an article in ‘India Today’. How can it become possible? Was Dr. Kakodkar made of a different soil? Was he working for a reward from the government of India? There was a synergy among such a great leadership, a team of dynamic youths working with them and the blessings of the seniors (‘Rishis’) who had worked in this field for long years. What a great miracle could be resulted by their combined efforts had been displayed to the world by India on doing these successful N– explosions.

Let us talk of political reaction. The first response was that it was a political decision. I strongly feel that if political leadership were not needed to be consulted, our scientists could have tested the N- devices quite earlier. The question is, “why the previous leadership couldn’t take such decision?” It was not so easy to face the harsh reactions after the tests. It was a fire-test. So the leadership who had a strong determination and confidence of success can take such a serious and historically important decision. And it became apparent that how malicious and derisive were the immediate reactions following the N –tests.

Bill Clinton was in Germany on that day. He was very furious. He declared from there many punitive measures in form of the sanctions for India. What a need for haste! He couldn’t keep patience even to consult his colleagues before taking such an important decision to completely boycott a nation like India. He went to Burmingham on 12th May. The G-8 nations were to meet there. On landing on airport, while talking with the journalists, his attitude had changed. He requested specifically to the heads of the G-8 nations, “Please don’t try to isolate India.” What does it mean? Yesterday you were talking to boycott India and today requesting others not to do such. What was the reason? He realized the mistake and damage due to his knee-jerk response. Was the decision taken in anger on the previous day rational? There was a beautiful caricature in ‘Sunday mirror’. Standing on a small peanut size piece of land on the globe of earth, Bill Clinton tells the world, “Don’t try to isolate India.” It was apparent who was isolated in reality.

G–8 meet started on 13th May and we carried out two more explosions. The interviews of some of the head of nations were telecasted on BBC that night. The first one was of the French President Jacques Chirac. An interviewer requested him to tell about world affairs of the day. He began telling that many of his friends were talking of isolating India, but he wanted to remind them that the country like India was developing the advanced technology like Thermo-nuclear device on its own. He told the world to notice that the country which had developed the advanced technical expertise in spite of many obstacles and limitations, could do anything and no technical skill was unattainable for India. She could develop the essential requisites on her own. India had left it to the world whether to be India’s friend or foe. He was talking like India’s advocate.

America might be calculating that like Iraq, the decision to put comprehensive sanctions over India could be taken by all the nations in G-8 meet. To their misfortune, France and Russia declared their plans to support India on the very first day. It was surprising that USA’s friends like Australia and England also took neutral position. Such was a miscarriage of proposed resolution of USA. It couldn’t even come on the table for discussion. It was the first insult to America. Clinton returned home on 14th May. Soon the CEOs of some MNCs met him.

In this background, an article by an economist Ms. Rubin came in New York Times. The title of this article was, “If sanctions are imposed, who is going to be affected? India? ” It was a question-mark. In her article she raised the issue that many of US companies/ MNCs had 30–50 % investment in Indian subcontinent. Some industries were establishing, some were in the initial phase. At this time if India retaliates to sanctions by making changes in her import export policy, what would happen? Had the president thought that who would be bearing the maximum shocks of it? Stressing the point further, she wrote that not only the cheaper but the most trustworthy and reliable software were supplied by India. The MNCs had flourished over that support. If the export duty on the software was increased, India can cover up the deficit resulted from the sanctions.

I am not bluffing. You know the well known MS-office software for computer. It is known as user friendly software. There is a word package in it known as MS-word. It is very easy and convenient package. We may not even think that it reached the whole world from Pune. There is a company named Priston engineering. There are only 32 people from peon to MD working in it. This company had done $ 450 million contract for three years with Microsoft. The market of MS-office is about billion dollars every year. Three of the first ten rich people are from Microsoft. Does this company come to India only for cheap material? The most important thing for a company is to establish the trustworthiness in the global market. So it purchases software from India paying $ 400 m. If the export duty of software is raised by 300– 400 %, calculate the figures.

Ms. Rubin brought to the notice many similar possibilities. On that basis, she asked President the question. At the end of the article, she wrote a very bashful sentence to the Americans. “It is an unfortunate part on our side that we will observe one of our presidents surrendering without fighting a war.” It was not like the war with Iraq or Taliban. It was an economic war with a promising economy.

She wrote this in June 98. The things became obvious now. Many roars of sanctions became irrelevant or ineffective. After sometime they proclaimed that they were lifting the sanctions off India in view of Indo–Pak dialogue. What an excuse for face saving! What were the sanctions applied? What were you giving previously that you are threatening not to give tomorrow?

The history is the witness. In 1974, when we did the first N– test, Canada, from where we had received N-technology and N-fuel to establish Atomic energy centre at Rajasthan Atomic power station (RAPS), called back their technologists and materials. This is the characteristic of their aid. None of our work got paralyzed on withdrawal of their help. The people working in the field learnt a lesson. They were determined that we have to arise on our legs if we want to succeed in this field. No one can win the race with crutches. We must be self-reliant to make our progress possible. The ‘Swadeshi Mantra’ was realized. All the experts of our nation working in this field were brought together and the data collected by them were studied. In six months, there stood a new unit. With the inputs from Canada, it would have been of 40– 42 % capacity; ours was of only 21 % capacity. But what is the situation today? The units in Canada run by 62– 64 % capacity, while the two units developed by RAPS are working with 74– 76 % capacity. How did it become possible? We realized what to do. We learnt how it works and we displayed it to the world. That is why we reached where we are today.

Before concluding I would like to request you. Many times ‘Swadeshi’ is derided. But it is very essential to consider it seriously. I am giving a simple logic easily understandable even by school children. Indian government spent Rs.1500 Crore to carry out research in the Nuclear field and to conduct N– Tests during the period from 1985 to 1999. Let us see the other figures. During April-May, most of us take soft drinks. Today no soft drink is ‘Swadeshi’. If our 90% of population drink only one bottle soft drink during these 2 months, we give Rs.900 Crore to the foreign companies. And these are not going to use a single rupee for the welfare of our nation. The substance of the ‘War’ as mentioned by Ms. Rubin in her article is here. When our ordinary shopkeeper, feeling that the MNC goods are unsaleable, needlessly occupying space, will throw them away, we will win the war. This is true for all the products of MNCs. Very useless products drain our thousands of crores of rupees in foreign coffers. On the other side, we had allotted 1500 crores only on strategic technology indispensable for our national security and sovereignty during last 15 years.

It is the time demanding actions, not only thinking. A practical housewife knows that water will be drained out through a small hole in it, and soon finds solution to it. Is it not our responsibility to plug the holes and loopholes in our system? Are we waiting for someone from west to come here and teach us this? Let us start from the self and spread the logic to anyone coming in our contact.

Once I kept the subject amongst the school students. Next day a lady doctor phoned me with an anger. She told that on listening my lecture her son threw ‘colgate’ toothpaste and toothbrush into dustbin. I told her that I would give her son a gift of swadeshi toothbrush and paste. I went to her home and explained the subject. After a good discussion, she was convinced. The result is that now, she used to go to different hotels of Pune daily for an hour and disseminates the subjects to many people. She has distributed more than 20000 copies of the list of swadeshi products.

The statesmen of our nation took one firm step and the whole world is astonished. Bhagavan Vaman had measured the world in three steps only. One step is placed. It is our responsibility to take further two steps and conquer the world. Bharat will be the superpower, scientifically, militarily and economically as well as all the fields of development of life.


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Christianity: West’s Default Religion

Posted in Uncategorized on 21/12/2009 by satyapravah

Christianity: West’s Default Religion

Christianity: West’s Default
Sandhya Jain
19 December 2009

Switzerland’s recent vote
against the construction of minarets as part of mosque architecture in that
nation symbolises a frontal return of Christianity as the Western world’s
default religion and culture, and a corresponding downsizing of the
discourse on
‘secularism’ and ‘multi-culturalism,’ which gave Islam an opportunity to seize
political and social space in the western public realm.

As other
European nations gear up to challenge the public display of symbols of Muslim
identity – most notably the hijab and
head scarf, though the beard and skull cap may prove more difficult –
a build-up
of religio-cultural tensions is inevitable. Violent outbursts cannot be ruled

It is not a Hindu dharm-yudh

The Swiss
vote has caused a frisson of
excitement in traditional and secular circles in
India , with some
Hindus hallucinating about a ‘natural’ alliance with the Christian West to
mutually crush Islam. This foolish hope once soared after the 2001
attack on the
Towers in New York ,
and Hindus in particular and Indians in general failed to comprehend why

Pakistan emerged as the West’s
leading non-NATO ally. Dr.. Manmohan Singh is similarly clueless why
two hostile
votes in the IAEA against a friendly
Iran still led to President Obama declaring

China the leading Asian power.

Hindus respond to a Western Crusade against Islam, the result will be
similar to
our experience in World War II, where the 2.5 million-strong Indian
Army won the
war for the colonial West, only to be betrayed back at home. The British
eventually quit India in 1947 only because of the military mutinies inspired by
Subhash Chandra Bose, and they successfully cut up the nation before leaving,
retaining critical territory in the form of a land bank called Pakistan, from
which they (and the US) could overlook (and operate in) Tibet, Central Asia,
China, Russia, and the Gulf. Further, they manipulated the mess in Jammu &
Kashmir, and continue to stir the pot, to our discomfort.

The purpose
of this article is to stress that Hindus lack the agility, self-confidence, or
even stake, to participate in the emerging War of Religions in
Europe . They would do well to keep out of this schism
within the Semitic fold. The West will never support Hindu affirmation and
primacy in India (or Asia),
and will always support Indian (and Pakistani / Bangladeshi) Muslims
and Jihadis
against the Hindu nation and the
State , for its own geo-strategic

David Headley and Tahawwur Hussain Rana are not accidentally linked to the CIA
and FBI. [Ignore the denials; please understand that a ‘rogue’ CIA
agent is only
a person CIA has decided to ‘sacrifice’ once the job is done; that is, one who
is not a voluntary suicide bomber. Remember that Mumbai terrorist
survivor Ajmal
Kasab revealed that the terrorists were all assured of an ‘exit’ plan, and were
not suicide terrorists – a significant revelation). Similarly, Kashmiri
separatists do not casually visit the United
States and
Britain .

The Jihadi
menace in our part of the world is the direct consequence of Western politics,
which we can ignore only at our own peril. The Sonia Gandhi-led UPA’s decision
to appoint the Ranganath Mishra Commission and examine ways to extend
constitutional benefits of Hindu Scheduled Castes to Christian and Muslim
converts is part of this continuing assault on Hindu dharma and
dharmis in this country. So is the
‘quiet diplomacy’ with Kashmiri separatists; the decision to declare a
Muslim-centric Telengana state in the old Hyderabad domains of the Pak-oriented
Nizam on Sonia Gandhi’s birthday; and the proposal to bring an Equal
Opportunities legislation to push Muslim employment in the private sector.

Hindus must
realise that they will have to fight for their rights vis-à-vis politically
assertive and West-backed minorities (both Muslims and Christians) in

India with their own innate skills
and resources. To outsource legitimate Hindu concerns to the West is abdication
of responsibility, a sell-out.

Hindus have
no stake in a Christian-Islamic confrontation in
Europe (or anywhere else). Indeed, such a conflict, if it
concentrates Islamic energies and resources in Europe, is certain to
reduce jihad in
India . Rising
incidents of jihad in Europe – especially a fight to make Christian Europe an
Islamic Eurabia – could prove a saving grace for
India , similar to the Mongol rush to
Baghdad and Europe that bypassed
India .

Europe’s forked tongue

Notwithstanding Western
rhetoric aimed at undermining non-Christian traditions in the post-World War II
era, religion has always been a marker of political identity. And religion and
culture are intimately connected. In
India , the Hindu religion and culture
rose simultaneously from the same soil and people over the centuries,
and cannot be separated. In Islam, the
Arab tribes, Arabic language and culture centred round the minor
irrigation near
the oases and the caravan trade provided the core structure of the early
community. To this day, Islam is uncomfortable with cultural traits not rooted
in Arab Islam.

Christianity, however, rose as
a political community in Europe long after the death of Jesus, by taking over
the declining Roman Empire . It claims origin
from a man born in Galilee (or Bethlehem , or
Nazareth ); its
culture from the extinct Graeco-Roman civilisation, and has spread by
cannibalizing the traditions and cultures it encountered on its onward march.
The divide between religion and culture is thus
exclusive to Christian tradition, and cannot be extended to the
experience of more homogenous societies and peoples.

pertinently, Christianity has no native bhumi, much less
a native region or ethnicity to call its own, because Jesus led the
early believers away from his native Judaism and
roots, and opened the doors to other groups. When the fledgling community moved
to Rome , it moved to another continent, and grew
by gobbling up the religion, culture and people of the dying
Roman Empire . The Christian claim to conquer and enjoy the
whole Creation and its creatures, human and non-human alike, is grounded in the
Jewish Old Testament. Ironically, the Jews like their Christian offspring, also
lack a clearly defined place of origin (where was Abraham born, or Noah,
or Moses?); the first kingdom established by Joshua in
Jericho was by conquest
and the complete annihilation of the native population there.

Post Second
World War, Europe (including America) played a complex game to keep the
Christian religion and culture as the default religion and culture of
the world,
while paying lip service to concepts of ‘secularism’ and ‘multi-culturalism’
which, as I have argued before, are nothing but the Masks of the Christian God
to disempower the gods and cultures of other non-monotheistic civilisations.
Hindus in
India , and those who left in search
of financial opportunities abroad, have been willing to make this compromise
with the Christian West.

Islam, which
views itself as an exclusive nationhood, or ummah, is unable to compromise its
religious and cultural identity, especially as hundreds of ordinary
Muslims feel
that the West has politically and economically disempowered the Muslim world by
purchasing a handful of elites in Muslim lands, especially in the late 19th and
early 20th centuries, and made proxy colonies out of them.

In both the
Christian and the Muslim mind, there is little doubt that the current
contest is
a continuation of the intra-Semitic struggle that began with the Prophet’s
launching of his religious mission in Arabia ,
climaxed in the Crusades, and festered thereafter. All religions have a
political facet. But Prophet Mohammad sought political expression and expansion
for his religious community as part of his mission, and thus made Islam both a
political ideology and a religious nationalism. He did not define racial,
cultural, or geographical frontiers, which did not matter in the early heady
centuries of conquest. Today, however, Islam does not know how to cope with
limits to its expansion placed by other peoples and cultures; continuing tribal
and old civilisational identities within Islam, modern nationalism, and the

Yet without
adjusting to the nation-state and the natural limits to its geographical
expansion, Islam will not be able to combat the pro-Western political
elites who
have subordinated and humiliated Muslim countries and peoples to Western
Corporate entities. Without being proud, stable, and ascendant in the Arabian
homeland, Islam cannot hope to survive as a viable entity anywhere in
the world.
The Saudi refusal to permit other religious structures in
Saudi Arabia is
hollow as the dynasty survives on Western support, and operates as a subsidiary
of the Imperial West.

brutalized and brutalizing face of Islam in
Pakistan and
reflects an aridity and brittleness that is doomed to failure. The famed Hindu
resilience after Mumbai 2008 and other less spectacular jihadi assaults is only
an inward understanding of this deeper impotence; Hindus are not afraid of
jihad; the real danger comes from the rampaging and manipulative West.

Crusades continue

as Islam spread rapidly westwards, Christian Europe felt the heat. The Crusades
were launched to recover the Holy Land, but more pertinently, to break Muslim
control over the trade routes to Asia .
Christendom lost the Crusades, but Europe’s mercantile class opened the sea
route to the East, and later to Africa , putting
Muslims at bay on two ocean fronts.
Jerusalem was retaken in 1917; Gen. Allenby
famously remarked that the Crusades were finally completed!
Damascus was taken in
1920; the French commander went to the tomb of Salaudin in the Great Mosque and
said: Nous revenons, Salaudin! (We
are back, Salaudin!).

Post Second
World War, the western world encouraged substantial Muslim immigration
for cheap
labour in the wake of prosperity stimulated by the Marshall Plan. Muslim
intellectuals were encouraged to migrate west as ‘dissidents’ against their
respective national regimes (mostly West-supported dictatorships!). Muslim
integration into European civil society was not given a thought then; now
Muslims are a dissatisfied and vocal minority.

is now seen by both sides as accepting the Default Culture of the West, i.e.,
the culture of Christian Europe, and tailoring Islam to conform to
this culture.
[This formula works with Hindus in
America , Europe, the Gulf, and even

Australia , where Hindus cannot
understand the growing white animosity to their presence there. This is because
most Hindus sundered their links with religion and culture before
leaving the shores of Bharat,
egged on by ambitious parents who valued monetary success above
everything else;
a handful had other reasons].

But Islam is
the last of the Revealed Semitic Faiths – supposedly the Final and most perfect
Revelation – hence marginalised and besieged Muslim groups fight to
retain their
distinctive identity (hijab) and
traditions (multiple marriages, Sharia). Islam challenges western
secularism and
multi-cultural claims with its insistence to live in its own way on soil long
dominated by Christianity; the consequences of this increasing tension cannot
but be volatile.

As part of
its contest with Islam and quest for world dominion, the Christian-Colonial
world made early inroads into the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal empires. Jesuit
monk Rudolf Acquaviva came to
Agra for religious debates at the invitation of
Emperor Akbar; the Delhi Diocese was established in the reign of Akbar.
Unnoticed by Indian historians, the white missionary and trader were fairly
entrenched in many strategic locations by the time the Mughal Empire formally
declined and the Maratha and Sikh Empires had peaked.

All this
ultimately deepened the religious conflict and triggered revivalist
movements in
Islam, which Europeans proved adept in penetrating and manipulating. Wahabi
Islam and indeed, all militant Muslim movements that have accompanied the rise
of Political Islam in the modern Colonial Era have intensified the de facto
disempowerment of the Muslim world, a reality Muslims cannot wish away, and to
which they accord a frustrated recognition.

Khomeini’s success in overthrowing the pro-American Pehlavi dynasty failed to
quieten the seething discontent in the Islamic world. As pro-Western Sunni
regimes generally survived the growing radicalization of the Muslim world, the
Khomeini Revolution only intensified the Shia-Sunni divide.

India , the traditional
structures of Hindu society (jati,
varna ,
parampara, sampradaya) have the intrinsic elasticity to cope with and
contain sharply divergent cultural streams.
India ’s
unique civilisational ethos has learnt to co-exist with ethnic, racial, and
religious groups (Jews, Parsis, Muslims) that do not desire to be assimilated
into the dominant culture. Muslims have long been negotiating
political space while protecting
their religion and culture. This involved delicate balancing and was possible
only because, as Aristotle observed (Politics), Hindus were the only people
in the world to have successfully made dharma the basis of their public life.
To this day, this remains
India ’s default cultural trait; it
survived the colonial divide-and-rule that inhibited Muslims from
adjusting to a
larger pan-Indian unity.

Christian West is incapable of accommodating the growing assertion of
socio-cultural-religious identity by its Muslim population. Hence cultural
pluralism, the suspension of the dominant cultural-civilisational framework so
other groups can find space to define themselves, has to make way for a more
overt assertion of Europe’s traditional Christian identity. In reaction,
pan-Islamism compresses the religious traditions of Muslim groups into a
one-dimensional Arabized identity to respond to the West’s economic-political
hegemony in Muslim countries and regions where Muslims are minority

As a
corollary, the overt assertion of the West’s Christian identity is a natural
extension of continuing Western economic, cultural, and religious imperialism.
Hence the rising budgets for evangelism in non-Christian countries like India,
Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bhutan and Myanmar, but also Muslim regions like Pakistan,
Afghanistan, Indonesia (first East Timor, now Aceh), and our own Srinagar

It is in
this context alone that one must view the frenzied French ban on head
scarves in
2004, on the plea that it involved the submission of women, and the even more
specious argument that the harsh lampooning of the Prophet in a Danish magazine
in 2005 was about free speech.

Pigeons come home to roost

Europe , the pigeons have come home to roost.
After decades of strenuous denial that religion is crucial in shaping national
identity, and that the religion and culture of the majority must
legitimately be
the dominant identity in multi-religious societies like
India , Europe is
in a blue funk trying to manufacture a discourse over national identity without
using the word ‘religion.’ Best of luck.

The truth is
that religion is the bedrock of identity, and religion always expresses itself
in culture. Islam cannot accept Christian culture without accepting Christian

unpleasant truth is that religion cannot be kept out of the public domain,
because it is not an individual or family affair, but has social and community
aspects that demand expression and respect. The European Union’s 20 million
Muslims are giving goose-bumps to 500 million Christians. Long centuries of
familiarity and common descent from the Patriarch Abraham have failed
to yield a
common ground of mutual respect and peaceful coexistence. One country wants to
put the Cross on its national flag.

Things can
only get worse. The post 9/11 ‘War on Terror’ is viewed by both Muslims and
Christians as another Crusade – a symbol of the West’s failure to separate the
religious from the political.

For Islam,
this is a moment of catharsis and choice. Islam stands at a major crossroad in
its historical trajectory. Hitherto, it has been Janus-faced like the Greek god
who looked simultaneously east and west.

Those days
of luxury – of hating the west and hurting the east – are now over. To survive
as a viable religion, culture, polity, Islam must free its own lands
and peoples
from the vice-like grip of the Crusaders and the Capitalists who are its real
tormentors and oppressors. It must deny itself the temptation of
crushing ‘soft’
targets like
India that have the resilience and
the resources to bounce back and to hit back.

Islam will
do well to concentrate its fight on the Arabian peninsula, the European
mainland, and the United
States . Hindus should think in terms of
restoring the Hindu civilisational frontier up to eastern
Persia in the west,
Myanmar and
Nepal in the east and
Tibet in the

The writer
is Editor,